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Learn X in Y minutes

Where X=tmux

tmux is a terminal multiplexer: it enables a number of terminals to be created, accessed, and controlled from a single screen. tmux may be detached from a screen and continue running in the background then later reattached.

  tmux [command]     # Run a command
                     # 'tmux' with no commands will create a new session

    new              # Create a new session
     -s "Session"    # Create named session
     -n "Window"     # Create named Window
     -c "/dir"       # Start in target directory

    attach           # Attach last/available session
     -t "#"          # Attach target session
     -d              # Detach the session from other instances

    ls               # List open sessions
     -a              # List all open sessions

    lsw              # List windows
     -a              # List all windows
     -s              # List all windows in session

    lsp              # List panes
     -a              # List all panes
     -s              # List all panes in session
     -t              # List all panes in target

    kill-window      # Kill current window
     -t "#"          # Kill target window
     -a              # Kill all windows
     -a -t "#"       # Kill all windows but the target

    kill-session     # Kill current session
     -t "#"          # Kill target session
     -a              # Kill all sessions
     -a -t "#"       # Kill all sessions but the target

Key Bindings

The method of controlling an attached tmux session is via key combinations called ‘Prefix’ keys.

----------------------------------------------------------------------
  (C-b) = Ctrl + b    # 'Prefix' combination required to use keybinds

  (M-1) = Meta + 1 -or- Alt + 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------

  ?                  # List all key bindings
  :                  # Enter the tmux command prompt
  r                  # Force redraw of the attached client
  c                  # Create a new window

  !                  # Break the current pane out of the window.
  %                  # Split the current pane into two, left and right
  "                  # Split the current pane into two, top and bottom

  n                  # Change to the next window
  p                  # Change to the previous window
  {                  # Swap the current pane with the previous pane
  }                  # Swap the current pane with the next pane

  s                  # Select a new session for the attached client
                     interactively
  w                  # Choose the current window interactively
  0 to 9             # Select windows 0 to 9

  d                  # Detach the current client
  D                  # Choose a client to detach

  &                  # Kill the current window
  x                  # Kill the current pane

  Up, Down           # Change to the pane above, below, left, or right
  Left, Right

  M-1 to M-5         # Arrange panes:
                       # 1) even-horizontal
                       # 2) even-vertical
                       # 3) main-horizontal
                       # 4) main-vertical
                       # 5) tiled

  C-Up, C-Down       # Resize the current pane in steps of one cell
  C-Left, C-Right

  M-Up, M-Down       # Resize the current pane in steps of five cells
  M-Left, M-Right

Configuring ~/.tmux.conf

tmux.conf can be used to set options automatically on start up, much like how .vimrc or init.el are used.

# Example tmux.conf
# 2015.12


### General
###########################################################################

# Scrollback/History limit
set -g history-limit 2048

# Index Start
set -g base-index 1

# Mouse
set-option -g -q mouse on

# Force reload of config file
unbind r
bind r source-file ~/.tmux.conf


### Keybinds
###########################################################################

# Unbind C-b as the default prefix
unbind C-b

# Set new default prefix
set-option -g prefix `

# Return to previous window when prefix is pressed twice
bind C-a last-window
bind ` last-window

# Allow swapping C-a and ` using F11/F12
bind F11 set-option -g prefix C-a
bind F12 set-option -g prefix `

# Keybind preference
setw -g mode-keys vi
set-option -g status-keys vi

# Moving between panes with vim movement keys
bind h select-pane -L
bind j select-pane -D
bind k select-pane -U
bind l select-pane -R

# Window Cycle/Swap
bind e previous-window
bind f next-window
bind E swap-window -t -1
bind F swap-window -t +1

# Easy split pane commands
bind = split-window -h
bind - split-window -v
unbind '"'
unbind %

# Activate inner-most session (when nesting tmux) to send commands
bind a send-prefix


### Theme
###########################################################################

# Statusbar Color Palatte
set-option -g status-justify left
set-option -g status-bg black
set-option -g status-fg white
set-option -g status-left-length 40
set-option -g status-right-length 80

# Pane Border Color Palette
set-option -g pane-active-border-fg green
set-option -g pane-active-border-bg black
set-option -g pane-border-fg white
set-option -g pane-border-bg black

# Message Color Palette
set-option -g message-fg black
set-option -g message-bg green

# Window Status Color Palette
setw -g window-status-bg black
setw -g window-status-current-fg green
setw -g window-status-bell-attr default
setw -g window-status-bell-fg red
setw -g window-status-activity-attr default
setw -g window-status-activity-fg yellow


### UI
###########################################################################

# Notification
setw -g monitor-activity on
set -g visual-activity on
set-option -g bell-action any
set-option -g visual-bell off

# Automatically set window titles
set-option -g set-titles on
set-option -g set-titles-string '#H:#S.#I.#P #W #T' # window number,program name,active (or not)

# Statusbar Adjustments
set -g status-left "#[fg=red] #H#[fg=green]:#[fg=white]#S#[fg=green] |#[default]"

# Show performance counters in statusbar
# Requires https://github.com/thewtex/tmux-mem-cpu-load/
set -g status-interval 4
set -g status-right "#[fg=green] | #[fg=white]#(tmux-mem-cpu-load)#[fg=green] | #[fg=cyan]%H:%M #[default]"

References

Tmux | Home

Tmux Manual page

Gentoo Wiki

Archlinux Wiki

Display CPU/MEM % in statusbar

tmuxinator - Manage complex tmux sessions


Got a suggestion? A correction, perhaps? Open an Issue on the Github Repo, or make a pull request yourself!

Originally contributed by mdln, and updated by 6 contributor(s).